Wolfgang Lösch

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Usage of Phonetic Symbols

Please refer to the table in the section Encoding of Phonetic Symbols to ensure that the phonetic symbols are displayed completely and correctly.


[ ˈ◌ ]superior stroke: primary stress on the following syllable
[ ˌ◌ ]inferior stroke: secondary stress on the following syllable
[ ◌̩ ]vertical line below: syllabic consonant
[ ◌ ]superscript letter: optional sound


[ b ]boy, job
[ d ]do, dad
[ ᴅ ]butter, city, item, forty, little
[ ð ]that, father
[ f ]foot, phase, safe
[ ɡ ]go, dog
[ h ]home, behind
[ k ]cold, kick
[ l ]let, pool
[ m ]many, some
[ n ]next, open
[ ŋ ]ring, sink
[ p ]paper, people
[ r ]rest, card, father
[ s ]see, sauce, price
[ ʃ ]ship, dish, nation
[ tʃ ]children, church
[ t ]ten, after, meet
[ θ ]thing, both
[ v ]very, move
[ w ]watch, away
[ y ]yes, canyon, senior
[ z ]zero, noise, prize
[ ʒ ]pleasure, vision
[ dʒ ]jump, judge, bridge

Vowels in Stressed Syllables

[ iy ]each, sea, deep, chief, real
[ ɪ ]big, sing, fish, will, here
[ ey ]take, face, say, they, mail
[ ɛ ]best, dress, end, head, help
[ ᴂ ]area, parents, marry, chair, where
[ æ ]ask, man, sad, chance, bank
[ ɜ ]learn, prefer, bird, girl, church
[ ʌ ]bus, come, fun, love, touch
[ ɑ ]car, hard, hot, box, shop, rock
[ ay ]drive, high, sky, child, fire
[ aw ]house, cloud, cow, town, hour
[ ɒ ]talk, pause, law, cross, soft, song
[ ɔ ]corn, before, short, storm, door
[ ɔy ]point, voice, join, boy, soil
[ ow ]go, home, cold, boat, soul
[ uw ]blue, room, cool, soon, move
[ ᴜ ]good, book, full, wolf, push

Vowels in Unstressed Syllables

[ i ]copier, serial, many, cookie
[ ɪ ]important, inclusive, historical, morning, classic, message
[ ᵻ ]enough, application, architect, challenge, private, useless
[ ə ]arrival, support, banana, dangerous, position, computer
[ o ]window, also
[ u ]value, usual